Wisconsin Coastal GIS Applications Project

The Status of Digital Planimetric and Topographic Mapping in Wisconsin's Lake Michigan Coastal Counties


Note: This Report is in draft form. Please do not link to this page.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 -- Introduction
Chapter 2 -- Summary of Digital Planimetric and Topographic Mapping on the Lake Michigan Coast
Chapter 3 -- Status of Digital Planimetric and Topographic Mapping in Lake Michigan Coastal Counties
Chapter 4 -- References
Appendix A -- Lake Michigan Coastal County GIS Data Survey Form
Appendix B -- Lake Michigan Coastal County GIS Data Survey Form

Author

David A. Hart
University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute
and
Land Information and Computer Graphics Facility, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Principal Investigators

Stephen J. Ventura
Bernard J. Niemann, Jr.
Land Information and Computer Graphics Facility, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Allen H. Miller
University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute
and
Land Information and Computer Graphics Facility, University of Wisconsin-Madison

This research was conducted as part of an agreement between the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Detroit District under the supervision of David Barilovich.


Chapter 1. Introduction

Large-scale mapping of planimetric and topographic features is common at the local level of government in Wisconsin. Planimetric features are those items that can be seen on the ground from an aerial perspective and represented on a map. Examples include building footprints, road edges and curblines, sidewalks, trees, rivers, lakes, utility poles, etc. (Huxhold et al 1993). Topographic features are those that define elevation information. Topographic information can be captured by drawing continuous contour lines representing an equal elevation or by recording elevation values for specific points, either in random spot locations or in a regular grid pattern, also known as a digital elevation model (Antenucci 1991).

Counties along the Lake Michigan coast in Wisconsin (see Figure 1) are investing significant resources in digital planimetric and topographic mapping. According to surveys of GIS/LIS expenditures from 1993 to 1995, Lake Michigan coastal counties in Wisconsin spent just under $1.7 million on the base map foundational element of the WLIP.

In order to better understand the status of digital geospatial data development at the local government level along the Lake Michigan coast of Wisconsin, detailed surveys were conducted in the 11 counties that border Lake Michigan. These surveys were conducted in person in county offices from January 29 to March 17, 1998. The survey included a total of 70 questions about the completeness, compilation method, format, and documentation of digital mapping of parcels, planimetric and topographic features, zoning, soils, wetlands, land use, natural resources, infrastructure, and digital orthophotos. The survey questions are included as Appendix A. This report analyzes the results of the survey related to digital planimetric and topographic mapping.


Chapter 2. Summary of Digital Planimetric and Topographic Mapping on the Lake Michigan Coast

Generally speaking, the status of large-scale digital planimetric and topographic mapping in the Lake Michigan coastal counties can be broken into four categories.

The first category includes counties where large-scale, digital planimetric mapping only is complete.
Door County (based on 1994 aerials - hydrography and road centerlines)
Kewaunee County (based on 1993 aerials - buildings, hydrography, and roads)
Sheboygan County (based on 1995 aerials - buildings, hydrography, and roads)

The second category includes the counties in the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (SEWRPC) where detailed digital planimetric and topographic mapping is either complete or underway. The representative planimetric and topographic features captured are identified in Appendix B of this report. Mapping scales are either 1"=100' or 1"=200' and contours are at 2 foot intervals.
Ozaukee County (75% complete)
Milwaukee County (100% complete)
Racine County (20% complete)
Kenosha County (100% complete)

The third category includes coastal cities with detailed planimetric and topographic mapping, typically 1"=100' or 1"=200' scale with two foot contours.
City of Manitowoc
City of Sheboygan
City of Racine

The final category includes counties where some planimetric features (typically hydrography and road centerines) are represented on digital parcel mapping.
Marinette County (digital parcel mapping 12% complete)
Oconto County (digital parcel mapping 10% complete)
Brown County (digital parcel mapping 55% complete)
Manitowoc County (digital parcel mapping 100% complete)


Chapter 3. Status of Digital Planimetric and Topographic Mapping in Lake Michigan Coastal Counties

Marinette County Digital Planimetric and Topographic Mapping Status

Marinette County does not have large-scale, digital planimetric and topographic mapping. The Bay Lake Regional Planning Commission has digitized digital line graphs (DLGs) for the portion of the county south of Hwy. 64 (approximately 5 to 10% of the county). The digital parcel map includes hydrography and road centerlines and rights-of-way. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Marinette County Coordinates. The data format for digital parcel mapping is AutoCAD.

Oconto County Digital Planimetric and Topographic Mapping Status

Oconto County does not have large-scale, digital planimetric and topographic mapping. The digital parcel map includes hydrography and road centerlines and rights-of-way. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Oconto County Coordinates. The data format for digital parcel mapping is Arc/Info coverages.

Brown County Digital Planimetric and Topographic Mapping Status

Brown County does not have large-scale, digital planimetric and topographic mapping. Hydrography has been heads-up digitized from NAPP photography. A distinction is made between navigable and non-navigable waterways. Eventually, hydrography will be tied to the DNR stream database. The digital parcel map includes road centerlines and rights-of-way. The county maintains a street network file based on TIGER that has ownership and maintenance information. The county has DEMs obtained from the USGS. Some are at a 30 meter spacing and some are at other resoultions. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Brown County Coordinates.

Door County Digital Planimetric and Topographic Mapping Status

Door County does have large-scale, digital planimetric mapping for the entire county in AutoCAD format. It is based on aerial photography from Spring 1994. Hydrography includes large lakes, islands, and streams on different layers and hydrographic features have been pulled into a separate Arc/info coverage for viewing. The planimetric map includes road centerlines and rights-of-way. For the planimetric map, right-of-ways are an offset of the centerline if no usable highway plan was available. Tom Haight, Door County LIO, estimates that usable highway plans were available for about 40 to 50 percent of the State and County Highways, and maybe 1 or 2 percent of Town roads. The planimetric map differentiates method of right-of-way placement by AutoCAD layer name. Door County does not have large-scale digital topographic mapping.

Kewaunee County Digital Planimetric and Topographic Mapping Status

Kewaunee County does have large-scale, digital planimetric mapping for the entire county in Intergraph Microstation format. It is based on aerial photography from Spring 1993. Planimetric features mapped include building outlines, hydrography, and road centerlines and pavement edge. The files are available from the county's consultants, Ruekert & Mielke, Inc. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Wisconsin State Plane Coordinates, Central Zone, NAD83. The county does not have large-scale, digital topographic mapping.

Manitowoc County Digital Planimetric and Topographic Mapping Status

Manitowoc County does not have large-scale, digital planimetric and topographic mapping. The digital parcel map includes hydrography and road rights-of-way, but these features were compiled using hybrid methods, but not using photogrammetry. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Manitowoc County Coordinates. The data format for digital parcel mapping is Arc/Info coverages.

The City of Manitowoc has large-scale, digital planimetric and topographic ( 2 foot contours) mapping for a 15 square mile area around the city, including the extraterritorial jurisdiction.

Sheboygan County Digital Planimetric and Topographic Mapping Status

Sheboygan County does have large-scale, digital planimetric mapping at a scale of 1"=400' for the entire county in Arc/Info coverage and ArcView shapefile formats. It is based on aerial photography from Spring 1995. Planimetric features mapped include building outlines, hydrography, and road centerlines and pavement edge. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Sheboygan County Coordinates. The county does not have large-scale, digital topographic mapping.

The City of Sheboygan has large-scale, digital planimetric mapping at a scale of 1"=200' and topographic mapping (2 foot contours) in AutoCAD files.

Ozaukee County Digital Planimetric and Topographic Mapping Status

Ozaukee County does have large-scale, digital planimetric and topographic (2 foot contour) mapping complete for 75% of the county in AutoCAD and Intergraph formats. All coastal jurisdictions are complete except for the Town of Belgium, which is expected by December 1998. It is based on a variety of dates of aerial photography (Mequon 1993; Grafton and Port Washington 1994; Belgium 1998). Planimetric features mapped include building outlines, hydrography, and road pavement edge. A complete list of planimetric and topographic elements are included in Appendix B. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Wisconsin State Plane Coordinates, South Zone, NAD27.

Milwaukee County Digital Planimetric and Topographic Mapping Status

Large-scale, digital planimetric and topographic (2 foot contours) mapping in all areas of Milwaukee County is completed by the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (SEWRPC) through the Milwaukee County Automated Mapping and Land Information System (MCAMLIS) project. MCAMLIS is a consortium of Milwaukee County local governments and utilities for the purpose of implementing cadastral mapping, planimetric and topographic mapping, and addressing.

The mapping is based on a variety of dates of aerial photography (Bayside 1987 and 1990; Fox Point 1985 and 1990; Whitefish Bay 1985 and 1990; Shorewood 1985 and 1990; coastal areas of Milwaukee 1984, 1982, 1992, and 1993; St. Francis 1983 and 1993; Cudahy 1984 and 1993; South Milwaukee 1980; and Oak Creek 1987 and 1993). Planimetric features mapped include building outlines, hydrography, and road pavement edge. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Wisconsin State Plane Coordinates, South Zone, NAD27. The data formats for distribution of digital planimetric mapping by SEWRPC are Genamap and AutoCAD DXF. Approximately 85% of the county is also available in Intergraph DGN format.

Digital planimetric and topographic mapping in Milwaukee County would be available through the MCAMLIS project. MCAMLIS copyrights its data, has a fee structure, and a data distribution policy. The policy for obtaining a sample would be: (1) determine whether the request is commercial or non-commercial; (2) recipient signs a license agreement which precludes providing the data to others; and 3) the first quarter-section of data can be purchased for $65 and each subsequent quarter-section is $30.

Racine County Digital Planimetric and Topographic Mapping Status

Racine County does have large-scale, digital planimetric and topographic (2 foot contour) mapping complete for the county in Genamap format. Coastal areas complete in Racine County include the City of Racine and the following areas in the Town of Caledonia: T4N R23E Sections 8, 17, 20, 28, 29 and 32. The county is under contract now for digital planimetric and topographic mapping in all areas east of I-94 that haven't been previously done. Planimetric features mapped include building outlines, hydrography, and road pavement edge. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Wisconsin State Plane Coordinates, South Zone, NAD27.

Kenosha County Digital Planimetric and Topographic Mapping Status

Kenosha County does have large-scale, digital planimetric and topographic (2 foot contour) mapping complete for the county in Genamap format. It is based on a variety of dates of aerial photography (Town of Somers 1996, 1993; City of Kenosha 1979, 1988, 1980, 1987; Village of Pleasant Prairie 1980). Planimetric features mapped include building outlines, hydrography, and road pavement edge. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Wisconsin State Plane Coordinates, South Zone, NAD27.


Chapter 4. References

Antenucci, John et al. 1991. Geographic Information Systems: A Guide to the Technology. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Huxhold, William E., D. David Moyer, and Peter G. Thum. 1993. "The Base Map" in Multipurpose Land Information Systems: The Guidebook. Edited by Patricia M. Brown and D. David Moyer. Silver Spring, Maryland: Federal Geodetic Control Committee.


Appendix A. Lake Michigan Coastal County GIS Data Survey Form

Date/Time of Survey:
Location of Survey:
Person Conducting Survey:
Persons Surveyed:
    Parcels
  1. Confirm the % complete of parcels in county in digital form (as listed in WLIB parcel survey).
  2. Does the county provide parcel mapping for cities and villages? If not, obtain contact name and phone numbers.
  3. If parcel mapping is only partially complete for the county, list % of coastal parcels complete by coastal MCD.
  4. Confirm parcel mapping compilation method (of six listed in WLIB survey).
  5. Confirm the coordinate system used in the county.
  6. Is there metadata for parcel mapping?
  7. What is the data format for parcel mapping (AutoCAD, Intergraph, Genamap, A/I, shapefile, other)?
  8. (If appropriate data format) Does the county parcel mapping have topology?
  9. Are digital parcels coded with Parcel Ids?
  10. Can a linkage be made between digital parcel mapping and tax roll/assessment data?
  11. Does the tax roll/assessment data include ownership? assessment category? acreage? land value? improvement value?
  12. Can I obtain a sample of digital parcel mapping and tax roll attributes for a coastal PLSS section?
  13. Photogrammetric base map

  14. Does the county have a digital vector-based photogrammetric base map?
  15. How much of the county is complete in digital form?
  16. If digital base map is only partially complete for the county, list % complete by coastal MCD.
  17. If digital base map is only partially complete for a coastal MCD, list % complete by coastal sections.
  18. What is the data format for the digital base map (AutoCAD, Intergraph, Genamap, A/I, shapefile, other)?
  19. Is there metadata for the digital base map?
  20. Does the digital base map include building footprints?
  21. Are buildings classified by use (sf res, mf res, comm, ind, public,…)?
  22. Are buildings classified by type (house, shed, garage, barn, …)?
  23. Does the digital base map include hydrography?
  24. Does the hydrography include a classification that distinguishes between Great Lakes shore and other lakes and streams?
  25. What does the Great Lakes shoreline represent (l/w edge at date of photo, OHWM, other)?
  26. Does the county maintain a digital representation of the Great Lakes shoreline over time?
  27. Does the digital base map include street centerlines? pavement edge? rights-of-way)?
  28. Are the streets classified by ownership/maintenance (local, county, state, federal, private,…)?
  29. Does the digital base map include the location of shore protection structures?
  30. Are the shore structures classified by type? age?
  31. Can I obtain a sample of the digital base map for a coastal PLSS section?
  32. Digital Orthophotos

  33. Confirm % complete of digital orthophotos?
  34. If partial completion, for what coastal areas
  35. If DOQ, has the county obtained them yet?
  36. Does the county have digital orthophotos for more than one date?
  37. If other than DOQ, list resolution.
  38. If other than DOQ, list file format (tif, bil, …)
  39. Is there metadata for the digital orthophotos?
  40. If other than DOQ, can I obtain the digital orthophotos for coastal area (1000 m zone)?
  41. Elevations

  42. Does the county have digital contour maps? Contour Interval?
  43. Does the county have a digital elevation model? Resolution?
  44. Does the county have a digital terrain model?
  45. How much of the county is complete in digital form?
  46. If the elevation map is only partially complete for the county, list % complete by coastal MCD.
  47. If the elevation map is only partially complete for a coastal MCD, list % complete by coastal sections.
  48. Are bluff edge, bluff toe, bluff height, and/or stable slope ratio explicitly identified on the digital elevation mapping?
  49. Is there metadata for digital elevation mapping?
  50. Can I obtain a sample of the elevation mapping for a coastal PLSS section?
  51. Zoning

  52. Does the county have a digital version of its shoreland/floodplain zoning ordinance?
  53. Does the county have digital mapping of shoreland zoning jurisdictions? For what coastal areas?
  54. Does the county have digital mapping of Great Lakes erosion setbacks?
  55. Does the county have digital floodplain mapping? For what coastal areas?
  56. Does the county have digital mapping of areas subject to flooding due to wave runup from the Great Lakes?
  57. Does the county have digital mapping of traditional zoning? For what coastal areas?
  58. Soils

  59. Does the county have digital soils mapping? For what coastal areas?
  60. Wetlands

  61. Does the county have digital wetlands mapping? For what coastal areas?
  62. Land Use

  63. Does the county have digital land use mapping? For what coastal areas?
  64. How was the digital land use mapping compiled?
  65. What Land Use Classification system is used (DOR, SIC, SLUC, local, regional,…)?
  66. Natural Resources

  67. Does the county have digital geology mapping? For what coastal areas?
  68. Does the county have digital mapping of Great Lakes recession rates?
  69. Does the county have digital mapping of lakebed grants
  70. Does the county have digital mapping of the location of public parks
  71. Infrastructure and Facility Management

  72. Does the county have digital transportation features other than roads (railroads, harbors, airports, transit)? For what coastal areas?
  73. Does the county have digital gas utility features? Contact?
  74. Does the county have digital electric utility features? Contact?
  75. Does the county have digital sewer utility features? Contact?
  76. Does the county have digital storm drain utility features? Contact?
  77. Does the county have digital water utility features? Contact?
  78. Does the county have digital telephone utility features? Contact?
  79. Does the county have digital cable television utility features? Contact?

Appendix B. Ozaukee County Planimetric/Topographic Mapping Elements

                 
Map Sheet Elements (Intergraph Format)

Data Element Group/Elements     Type    Level   Color   Notes
-------------------------------------------------------------
Map Border                      Line    1       1       Border, Trim Lines                                            
Map Title                       Text    1       2    
Map Legend Box                  Line    1       3       Map Logo
Map Legend Box Text             Text    1       4    
Graphic Scale                   Line    1       5
Graphic Scale Text              Text    1       6    
North Point                     Point   1       7
North Point Text                Text    1       8
Map Legend Symbols              Point   1       9
Map Legend Text                 Text    1       10
Map Index Section Lines         Line    1       11
Map Index County & Town Lines   Line    1       13
Map Index City Boundary Lines   Line    1       15
Map Index Location Box          Line    1       17


Geodetic & Geographic Reference Elements

Data Element Group/Elements     Type    Level   Color   Notes
-------------------------------------------------------------
NGS Triang. Station Location    Point   2       1       See Note 1
NGS Triang. Station Text        Text    2       4       See Note 1

GPS Control Station Location    Point   2       5       See Note 1
GPS Control Station Text        Text    2       8       See Note 1

Traverse Station Location       Point   2       9       See Note 1
Traverse Station Text           Text    2       12      See Note 1

Photo Center Location           Point   2       13      See Note 1
Photo Center Text               Text    2       14      See Note 1
Bench Mark Location             Point   2       15      See Note 1
Bench Mark Text                 Text    2       16      See Note 1

Wisconsin State Plane Coordinate
  Grid Intervals                Point   3       1       See Note 2
Wisconsin State Plane Coordinate   
                                Text    3       2       See Note 2
Wisconsin State Plane Coordinate
  Grid Intersections            Point   3       3       See Note 1

US Public Land Survey Corner    Point   4       1    
US Public Land Survey Corner    Text    4       4    
  Coordinates (NAD-83/91)
US Public Land Survey Monuments Point   4       5
US Public Land Survey Monuments
  Coordinates (NAD-83/91)       Text    4       8    

US Public Land Survey             
  Section Line                  Line    5       1
US Public Land Survey        
  Section Bearing/Length        Text    5       2
US Public Land Survey
  Quarter-Section Line          Line    5       3
US Public Land Survey           Text    5       4
  Quarter-Section Bearing/Length


Hydrographic Elements

Data Element Group/Elements     Type    Level   Color   Notes
-------------------------------------------------------------
Open Water Line                 Line    8       1       See Note 3
Open Water Name Text            Text    8       2       See Note 3
Open Water Direction of Flow    Point   8       3    

Single Width Water Line         Line    9       1       See Note 4
Single Width Water Name Text    Text    9       2       See Note 4

Marsh Boundary Line             Line    10      1
Marsh Name Text                 Text    10      2
Marsh Symbol                    Point   10      3


Planimetric Elements

Data Element Group/Elements     Type    Level   Color   Notes
-------------------------------------------------------------
Road Pavement/Curb Line         Line    11      1
Road Name Text                  Text    11      2
Road Median/Boulevard Line      Line    11      3

Unimproved Road Line            Line    13      1    
Unimproved Road Name Text       Text    13      2

Driveway Line (paved)           Line    14      1
Driveway & Parking Text         Text    14      2
Driveway (unpaved)              Line    14      3
Parking (paved)                 Line    14      5
Parking (unpaved)               Line    14      7

Trail Line                      Line    15      1
Trail Line Text                 Text    15      2

Fence Line                      Line    17      1

Transmission Tower              Line    18      3
Communications Tower            Line    18      5    Other Large Towers
                                            
Utility Pole Location           Point   19      5    Light, Power & Telephone Poles

Railway Track Centerline        Line    20      1
Railway Name Text               Text    20      4
Railway (abandoned)             Line    20      7

Building Roof/Foundation 
  Outline                       Line    21      1
Building Name Text              Text    21      2

Ruins Foundation Outline        Line    22      1
Ruins Name Text                 Text    22      2

Dam Line                        Line    23      1
Dam Name Text                   Text    23      2
Pier Line                       Line    23      3
Pier Name Text                  Text    23      4
Dock Wall Line                  Line    23      5
Dock Wall Name Text             Text    23      6

Culvert (small)                 Point   24      1
Culvert Line (large)            Line    24      3

Bridge Deck Line                Line    25      1
Bridge Wing/Retaining Wall
  Line                          Line    25      3

Aviation Runway/Taxiway Line 
  (paved)                       Line    26      1
Aviation Runway/Taxiway Name
  Text                          Text    26      2
Aviation Runway/Taxiway Line 
  (unpaved)                     Line    26      3

Cemetery                        Line    27      5
Cemetery Text                   Text    27      6
Paved Slab                      Line    27      7
Paved Slab Text                 Text    27      8
Open Storage, Pile, U/C         Line    27      9
Open Storage, Pile, U/C Text    Text    27      10
Pipeline                        Line    27      11
Pipeline Text                   Text    27      12
Overhead Structure              Line    27      15
Overhead Structure Text         Text    27      16
Pool                            Line    27      19
Pool Text                       Text    27      20      Letter P
Tank, Silo                      Line    27      21
Tank, Silo Text                 Text    27      22
Sign Text                       Text    27      24      Letter S
Sign Line                       Line    27      25
Substation Structure            Line    27      27
Substation Text                 Text    27      28
Wall                            Line    27      29
Wall Text                       Text    27      30      Letter W
Other Planimetric Features              27      33

Tree Location                   Point   33      1
Wooded Area Boundary Line       Line    33      3


Hypsometric Elements

Data Element Group/Elements     Type    Level   Color   Notes
-------------------------------------------------------------
Accentuated Contour Elevation
  Line                          Line    29      1
Accentuated Contour Elevation
  Number                        Text    29      2
Accentuated Contour Depression
  Line                          Line    29      3
Accentuated Contour Depression
  Number                        Text    29      4
Accentuated Approx. Contour
  Elevation Line                Line    29      5
Accentuated Approx. Contour
  Elevation Number              Text    29      6
Accentuated Approx. Contour
  Depression Line               Line    29      7
Accentuated Approx. Contour
  Depression Number             Text    29      8

Unaccentuated Contour 
  Elevation Line                Line    30      1
Unaccentuated Contour
  Depression Line               Line    30      3
Unaccentuated Approx. Contour
  Elevation Line                Line    30      5
Unaccentuated Approx. Contour
  Depression Line               Line    30      7

Spot Elevation Location         Point   31      1
Spot Elevation Value Text       Text    31      2

Water Surface Elevation
  Location                      Point   31      3
Water Surface Spot Elevation
  Value Text                    Text    31      4
US Public Land Survey Corner
  Elevation                     Text    31      6

Last modified by David Hart on July 1, 1998